You are in browse mode. You must login to use MEMORY

   Log in to start

Geology 102

In English
Geology 102

Created by:
Handsome Ant

0 / 5  (0 ratings)

» To start learning, click login

1 / 25


What is geology

Study of the earth

Practice Known Questions

Stay up to date with your due questions

Complete 5 questions to enable practice


Exam: Test your skills

Test your skills in exam mode

Learn New Questions

Dynamic Modes

SmartIntelligent mix of all modes
CustomUse settings to weight dynamic modes

Manual Mode [BETA]

The course owner has not enabled manual mode
Specific modes

Learn with flashcards
multiple choiceMultiple choice mode
SpeakingAnswer with voice
TypingTyping only mode

Geology 102 - Leaderboard

1 user has completed this course

No users have played this course yet, be the first

Geology 102 - Details



65 questions
What is geology
Study of the earth
What is environmental geology
The study of the complex relationship between humans and their geological environment
What are the spheres of the earth
Biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, extraterrestial
What are some pros to minerals
Provides many products to humans, medicines, cleaners, cars, phones, provides jobs (miners, geologists, researchers, manufacturing, sales)
Cons to minerals
Renewable vs. non renewable (will we run out?), conservation (are we wasteful) mining ethically and morally, safe disposal
How do minerals form
Solidification out of magma, or precipitation out of super saturated fluid
Definition of a mineral
Naturally occurirng, inorganic crystalline solids that have a definite chemical composition and possess characteristic physical properties
Hardness: the gorillas can flirt and five quirky things can do
1. Talc, 2. Gypsum, 3. Calcite, 4. Fluorite, 5. Apatite 6. Feldspar 7. Quartz, 8. Topaz, 9. Corundum, 10. Diamond
Non- metallic lustre
Adamantine (diamond), Slendent (mirror) vitreous (glassy) resinous (plastic) greasy, silky, earthy or dull
What is diaphaneity
Minerals ability to transmit light. there are 3 kinds (transparent, translucent, opaque
What are the mineral groups
Silicates( if it has silicon) Non-silicates (if there is no silicon)
What are some non-silicates
Oxides, sulphides, sulphates, native metals, halides, carbonates, phosphates, hydroxides
What is a map
A visual means of communicating encoded information from the map maker to the map reader
The vibration generated by the sudden release of energy associated with the rapid movement of rock along fault
Fault surface
The fracture surface between one block and another along which movement occurs
Origin of earthquake that point within the earth's crust where movement first occurred
Seismic waves
Waves of energy that travel like shock waves from the focus
A location on the earth's surface directly above the focus
What order do seismic waves come in?
(Body waves) P waves, S waves, Surface waves (love waves, Rayleigh waves)
Properties of p waves
Transmit through solid and fluid, 4 to 10 km/s, first waves at recording station, compression like a slinky
Properties of S waves
Secondary waves, shearing motion only through rock materials, like a rope when flicked, velocity 2 to 5 km/s, absorbed by the liquid core which creates s wave shadow zone. can cause a lot of damage
Properties of surface waves
Travel through the earth's lithosphere, can be very destructive, they form from unexpected p and s waves
What is a divergent boundary
Tensional, spreading. Mid oceanic ridge and rift valley
What is a convergent boundary
Coming together, collisions, the denser plate always goes underneath known as subduction
What are the three types of convergent boundaries
Oceanic-oceanic, oceanic-continental, continent-continent
What is a transform boundary
Represent a break along which two plates grind past each other, associated with shallow but destructive earthquakes
Oceanic-oceanic convergent boundaries
Whichever plate is older will be subducted, presence of trench, volcanism
Oceanic-continental convergent boundaries
Oceanic plate will always be subducted, benioff zone can very shallow, powerful earthquakes and explosive volcanic activity, crustal thickening in continental plate, can form mountains
What is a benioff zone
Earthquake epicentre
Continental-continental convergent boundary
Neither one is subducted, massive collision, major mountain building, powerful earthquakes, little volcanism
Molten rock, has crystals and gasses within it (intrusive)
Magma that reaches earths surface (extrusive)
A vent which magma, gasses and solids are ejected, can build up to form a mountain like shape but not necessary
Pyroclastic material
Solid rock fragments ejected during an eruption
Air born pyroclastic material, tephra varies in size (large bombs, lapilli (gravel sized) ash (finest size))
Magma viscosity: more viscous
Less fluid like more sticky more explosive
Intrusive land forms
Form underground, cooling of magma exposed after erosion of rocks
Extrusive land forms
Form at the surface from lava
Is sand a rock
No it is sediment
What is bedrock
Attached to earths crust
What is outcrop
Exposure of bedrock at the surface
Naturally occurring, solid material comprised of aggregates of one or more minerals or solidified organic material
What are the 3 rock groups
Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
What is the rock cycle
Magma to igneous rock, to sediments to sedimentary rock to metamorphic
What is an igneous rock
Formed by the cooling and crystallization of molten rock
Classification of igneous rocks
Rock texture (size of grains), the size of the mineral grain, colour, composition
What are the 3 kinds of colours of igneous rocks
Felsic (light) intermediate and mafic (dark)
What is a felsic igneous rock
Rocks like granite (intrusive) and rhyolite (extrusive) are dominated by light coloured felsic minerals like quartz and feldspar
What is a mafic igneous rock
Gabbro and basalt dominated iron and magnesium
What are some other physical properties of minerals
Feel, taste, magnetic, chemical reaction, smell, fluorescence
What are some physical properties of minerals
Cleavage or fracture, density and specific gravity, hardness, colour, streak, lustre, diaphaneity
What is on a map
Title, legend, north arrow, scale, contour lines
What are contour lines
Special line symbols that join points of equal elavation
Military grid system
6 numbers, first 3 is east west called easting next 3 north-south called northing
Map symbols
Point(location of citys, town), line( roadways or boundaries), area(colours or patterns), qualitative symbols (presence and location of phenomena) and quantitative symbols (quantities of phenomena)
A volcanic crater that develops from the explosion and collapse of a composite volcano.
Composite cones or Statovolcanoes
Intermediate in size, variable slope angles, lay dormant for long time, very explosive eruptions,
Cinder cones
Smaller in size, shorter life span, higher angle (more steep) built of dry pyroclastic material, composition rhyolitic to andesitic
Shield volcanoes
Largest found on earth, gentle slopes, formed from basalt
Flood basalt
Very fluid lava, ejected from a fissure, often fed from mantle plumes