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[Front]


what is the blood vessels in circulation
[Back]


arteries, veins, capillaries

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114 questions
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What is the blood vessels in circulation
Arteries, veins, capillaries
What two circuits does the heart pump blood
Pulmonary circuit(right side), systemic circuit(left side)
Which circuit pumps blood with no oxygen
Pulmonary circuit(right side)
The heart wall consists of 3 layers
Epicardium ,myocardium, endocardium
What type of tissue is endocardium
Epithelial simple squamous
What is the wall of the heart
Cardiac muscle or myocardium
What is pericarditis
Inflammation of pericardium
What is cardiac taponade?
Large volume of fluid or blood accumulates in pericardial cavity
What is auricles
Anterior extensions of atria
Coronary sulcus is
Separates atria from ventricle
Interventriculuar sulcus
Is anterior and posterior and seperates right and left ventricles
What is the difference between a vein and arteries
Veins are vessels that bring blood to the heart while arteries take blood away from the heart
Function of atria
Collect venous blood
Structures of atria right side
Openings of superior and inferior vena cava
Structures of atria right side
Opening of the coronary sinus
Structures of atria right
Fossa ovalis former foramen ovalis
Structures of atria right
Pectinated muscle
2 nodes in atria
SA , AV nodes
Structure of left atria
Openings of 2 right and two left pulmonary veins
The openings of 2 right and two left pulmonary veins does what
Brings oxygen righ blood from lungs to left atrium
Structure of left atria
Penctinated muscle
Ventricles function
Recieve blood from atria, pump blood through arteries
Structures of ventricles ride side
Opening to pulmonary trunk
What are two main functions of pulmonary trunk
Takes oxygen depleted blood into lungs , divides into right and left pilmonary arteries
What are trabeculae carnae
Muscle ridges of ventricle
What are papillary muscle
Fingerlike projections of muscle that attach to the chordae tendinae of heart valves
Functiond of opening to aorta
Aorta takes oxygen rich blood from left ventricle to systemic circulation
Right side of atrioventicular
AV valve, tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar valve
Left side of atrioventicular
AV valve , bicuspid (mitral), aortic semilunar valve
What happens in route of blood flow through the heart
Both atria and both ventricles contract at same time
Where does blood move from and where does it pass through
Moves from atria to ventricles, passing through opan AV valves
What happens to the cusps in bicuspid when heart is relaxes
The cusps of the valve are pushed by the blood into the ventricles
What happens to the cusps in the aortic semulunar valve when heart is relaxed
The cusps of the valve overlap as they are pushed by the blood in the aorta toward the ventricle
Where does deoxygenated blood arrive at
At the right atri via SVC, IVC, and coronary sinus
Where does oxygenated blodd arrive at
At the left atria via four pulmonary veins
When does valve position
When blood is flowing out of the left ventricle
What happens the cusps in bicuspid valve when heart is contracted
Cusps of the valve overlap as they are pushed by the blood toward the left atrium
Function of heart skeletion
Electrical insulation between atria and ventricle
What are two population of muscle cells in heart
Contractile and conducting cells
What is the function of conducting cells
Generate action potentials and relay AP'S to contractile cells
What components of the ventricles does the conductiong system have
AV bundles, bundle branches, purkinje fibers
SA mode is the
Pacemakrt of the heart
What happens to the AP's in SA node
AP's that aere generated at SA node travel through walls of atrium to AV node, spreat throughout contractile cells of atria
What happens to AP's in AV node
AP's pass through AV node and along AV bundle, AV bundle extends through the interventrucular septum
What happens to the atria and ventricle when delayed
Prevents them from contracting at the same time
What does the bundle branches carry
AP to apex of each ventricle
What causes delay of impulse at AV bundle
Smaller cells of AV bundle, few intercalacted discs
In plateau phase, what happens to calcium
Enough calcium channels are open to slow down depolarization, calcium influx initiates muscle contraction
In pacemaker potential,
Small number of sodium channels are open, voltage gated ca2+ channels begin to open which mainly responsible for depolarization
Depolarization phase
Voltage gated ca+ channels open
What does having tachycardia mean
Heart rate excess of 100 bpm
What does having bradycardia mean
Heart rate less than 60 bpm
What is cardiac cycle
The repetitive contraction-relaxtion of the heart
What does cardiac cycle depend on
Ability of the muscle to contract, integrity of conduction system
What happens in a passive ventricular filling
Blood passively filling atria pushing AV valves open which most of ventricular filling take place
What happens in atrial systole
Atrial contraction finishes filling ventricles
What happens in early ventricular systole
Ventricular contraction begins, ventricles are filled with blood, AV valves are closed making the first heart sound
End diastolic volume is
Volume inside ventricles
In early ventricular systole, what happens to the atria
Its relaxed, blood flows through from veins
In early ventricular systole, what happens to the ventricles
Its filled with blood, then ventricular contraction begins, AV and semilunar valves remain closed, contraction increases pressure
What happens in the ventrucular systole period of ejection
Ventricular contraction increases, increasing ventricular pressure, pressure pushes semilunar valves open, blood flows through semilunar valves
What happens in ventricular and atrial diastole
Ventricles are relaxed, blood inside the aorta and pulmonary trunk returns, filling semilunar valves to close, AV valves closed, second heart starts
What does MAP mean
Mean arterial blood pressure
CO means
Cardiac output resistance
HR means
Heart rate
CO=
HR X SV
MAP=
HR X SV X PR
What does preload mean
The volume of blood that arrives at the right atria
What happens when preload is increases
EDV is increased, which stretches the ventricular walls
What is the response to the preload and EDV increase
An increase in contractility causing a greater SV, which is called starling law of thr heart
What is afterload
Pressure that the left ventricle must exert to open the aortic semilunar valve
When the afterload is increased
It decreases SV, CO and MAP