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Human Structure and Function Test 1

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Colourful Tiglon

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Gross, Surface, Microscopic, Developmental

Levels of anatomy

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Human Structure and Function Test 1 - Details



89 questions
Organ system level
One or more organs make up a system
Characteristics of organisms
Organisation, metabolism, responsiveness, growth, development, reproduction (OMGRDR)
Chemical reactions taking place in an organism
Purpose of anatomical position
Gives point of reference to describe parts of body
Person laying face up
Person laying face down
Sagittal plane
Runs vertically down body. left and right portions
Frontal plane
Runs vertically from right to left. divides in to anterior and posterior. aka coronal
Transverse plane
Runs parallel to ground. divides in to superior and inferior. aka horizontal
Oblique plane
Does not run parallel to frontal or transverse plane
Body cavities
Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic (and abdominopelvic)
Parts of Thoracic cavity
Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Divides thoracic cavity. oesophagus, trachea, blood vessels, thymus and heart
Subdivisions of abdomen
R and L Upper quadrant, R and L lower quadrant
9 divisions of abdomen. Upper R = ?
Right Hypochondriac region
9 divisions of abdomen. Upper L =?
Left hypochondriac region
Serous membranes
Line the cavities in the trunk of the body and cover organs within the cavities
Serous fluid
Fills the cavity between the two layers and acts as a lubricant between organ and body wall
What is serous fluid important for?
Reducing friction. organs that move - eg heart
What is a cell?
Structural and functional unit of all living things
4 functional characteristics of cells?
Cell metabolism and energy use, synthesis of molecules, communication, reproduction
3 functions of plasma membrane
Encloses and supports cellular contents, controls what goes in to cell and what comes out, role in intercellular communication
Plasma membrane structure
Lipid bilayer, carbohydrates, proteins, glycocalyx
What is glycocalyx?
Part of plasma membrane structure. outer surface of cell membrane
Components of glycocalyx
Glycoproteins, glycolipids, carbohydrates
What is the cytoplasm?
Cellular fluid material outside nucleus, but within boundaries of plasma membrane
What is found own cytoplasm?
Organelles and cytosol
What is cytosol?
Fluid portion of cytoplasm. ions and proteins in water
What are cytoplasmic inclusions?
Aggregates of chemicals
What is the cytoskeleton?
Supports the cell and its organelles. responsible for changes to shape of cell and movement of organelles.
Nucleus function
Control centre of cell. DNA carries code for structural and functional characteristics of cell.
Nucleus structure
Nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, nucleolus
Ribosomes function
Sites of protein synthesis
Ribosomes structure
2 subunits -large and small. free ribosomes and membrane bound ribosomes.
ER structure
Flattened interconnecting sacs and tubules
Rough vs smooth ER
Rough = ribosomes, smooth = no ribosomes
Rough ER function
Synthesis and modification of proteins
Smooth ER function
Site of lipid, steroid and CHO synthesis, detoxification of harmful substances, breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Golgi apparatus structure
Flattened membranous sacs with cisternae. A secretory vesicle
Golfi Apparatus function
Modifies, packages and distributes proteins and lipids that are made in rER
Lysosomes structure
Membrane bound vesicles that from at the GA
Lysosome function
Cells demolition crew. digestion of molecules that are no longer needed by cell
Mitochondria structure
Outer membrane, inter membrane space, inner membrane, matrix
Mitochondria function
Power plants of cell. ATP production and supply
Centrioles structure
Barrel shaped organelles oriented at right angles to each other. wall is composed of microtubules. two centrioles found in centrosome
Centriole function
Cell division
Cilia structure
Whip like, motile cellular extensions which project from outer surfaces of certain cells.
Cilia function
Movement of substances across surface of cells
Flagella structure
Similar to cilia but longer. found on sperm cells only. move actual cell itself
Microvilli structure
Extensions of plasma membrane. non motile
Microvilli function
Increases cell's surface area
5 steps of tissue prep
Removal, fixation, embedding, slicing, staining
What does eosin stain?
Not nuclei. other cell structures including cytoplasm
What points should be considered when viewing histological images?
Plane tissue has been cut and magnification of the image
4 primary tissue types
Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
CT purpose
Epithelial tissue does what?
Covers and protects, forms boundaries between different environments
What are the epithelial cell surfaces?
Free surface, lateral surface, basal surface
Is epithelial tissue avascular? innervated?
Yes and yes .does have nerve supply, does not have direct supply of blood vessels
Simple squamous epithelium function
Diffusion, filtration, some secretion
Simple squamous epithelium location
Alveoli of lungs, kidney glomeruli, serous membranes