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Angela Kelle

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Exchange of nucleotide sequences often occurs between

Homologous sequences

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Microbiology - Details



172 questions
Difference between horizontal and vertical gene tranfer
Vertical gene transfer is passing of genes from parent to next generation whereas horizontal is between two different mature bacteria
3 types of horizontal gene transfer
Transformation, transduction, conjugation
Define transformation
Bacteria takes up naked DNA from environment
Define transduction
Transfer of DNA via replicating virus
Types of transduction
Generalized and specialized
What happens after host DNA degradation
New phages are produced to engulf phage DNA
What else happens due to this
Host DNA is taken by accident
Define conjugation
Transfer of F+ plasmid
What is an HFR cell
F+ incorporated in host DNA
End result of HFR transfer
Reciepient is still F-
Transposons all contain
Palindromic sequences at end
Two types of transposons
Jumping and replication transposons
Simplest transposon contains what (2)
One gene, 2inverted repeats
Difference between cide and statis/static
Cide is killing whereas statis is just inhibiting growth
2 examples of antisepsis
Iodine and alcohol
Examples of cides
Fungicides, germicides and virucides
Examples of germicides (3)
Ethylene and propylene oxides, aldehydes
2 ways of degerming
Handwashing and alcohol swabbing before injections
Four examples of disinfectants
Soaps, alcohols, aldehydes, phenolics
What does pasteurization do?
Just prevents more microbes from growing but they are stil present
Examples of sanitation
Washing dishes and tableware with scalding water
Two examples of sterilization
Preparation of culture and canned food
How do antimicrobial agents destroy microbes(2)
Altering cell wall/membrane and damge to protein/nucleic acid
What happens if cell wall is damaged
Cell loses osmoregulation
What happens if cell membrane is altered
Controls movement of solutes in and out so cellular contents may leak out
What are the four ideals for a microbial antiagent
Inexpensive, fast-acting, stable during storage, harmless top the object it is protecting
What is the second and third most resistant microbe
Bacterial endospores and mycobacteria
Why is mycobacteria very resistant
Does not have cell wall to be targeted
What do intermediate-level germicides do
Kill fungal spores, viruses, cysts and pathogenic bacteria
4 moist heat methods for controlling microbes
Boiling, autoclaving, pasteurization, ultrahigh-temp sterilization
Aurtoclaving uses what (2)
Pressure and steam
How is ultra-temp sterilization done
Heated at 140C for 3 secs then rapid cooling
What does dry heat do(2)
Denatures protein and oxidizes metabolic and structural chemicals
What does refidgeration do to microbes
Halts its growth not kill it
Lyophilization is typically used for
Long-term preservation of microbial cultures
How does osmotic pressure prevent microbes
High salt/ sugar concentration inhibits growth
Two types of radiation
Electromagnetic and particulate radiation
Describe particulate radiation
High-speed subatomic particles freed from their atoms
Describe electromagnetic radiation
Energy without mass travelling in waves at the speed of light
Ionizing radiation involves what three things
X-rays, gamma rays, electron beams
What does ionizing radiation do(3)
Disrupts h-bonds, oxidize double bonds, create hydroxyl radicles
Nonionizing is used for (3)
Disinfecting air, transparent fluid, surfaces of objects
What limits phenol use
Very reactive so can be used on a few things
2 examples of phenolics
Orthocresol and triclosan
What does phenolics affect in bacteria
Denature their proteins and cell membranes