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Psychopathology


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Sydney Roman


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Psychological Disorder
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A psychological disfunction that causes impairment/distress to an individual and and elicts a response that is typically/culturally unexpected

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Psychological Disorder
A psychological disfunction that causes impairment/distress to an individual and and elicts a response that is typically/culturally unexpected
Different types of Mental health Practitioners
Clinical Psychologists (cause, treat, assess, diagnose)
Science Practitioner Approach
Consumer of science, evaluator of practice, creator of science, evidence based
What is abnormal?
Statistically infrequent, violate social norms, personal distress/impairment
What is Stigma?
Cues (psychiatric symptoms, social deficit, labels, physical appearance), Stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination
Historical perspective
- supernatural causes mental illness, possession by demons/evil/witches/spirits, treatment includes shock and exorcism
Biological Perspective - Hippocrates
Disturbance is caused by fluids/humors
Different fluids/humors
1) blood (heart), 2) yellow bile (liver), 3) phlem (brain), 4) black bile (spleen)
Psychological Perspective
Moral therapy, Asylums (dix), Mesmerism, Hysteria/Hypnosis, Freud
Freuds Structure of the Mind
Id - pleasure principle. ego - mediator of the two, reality principle. superego - conscious, reasoning
Defense mechanisms
Denial, repression, projection, reaction formation, displacement, sublimation, rationalization, regression, identification, intellectualization
Psychoanalysis
Free association, dream analysis, transference, therapy
Free association
Say whatever comes to mind
Dream analysis
Dreams tell you your unconscious thoughts, interpret them to know what your really feeling
Humanistic Perspective
Rogers (person-centered therapy, unconditional positive regard, relate to the person), Gestalt therapy
Integrated approach
Biological influences: genes, diathesis stress model (predisposed to disorders), brain/neurotransmitters
Assessment Tools
Reliable (consistent), valid (measures what its suppose to), standard
Types of assessment tools
Projective tests, objective tests, behavioural assessment, biological assessment, clinical interview
Projective Tests
- shown a picture/series and asked what you think of it, how you interpret it. access the unconscious mind/motivations that are unaccessible by self-report. advantages: target what the patient doesnt verbally say. Disadvantages: controversial (reliability and validity), reliance on interpretation
Objective tests
Questionnaires: advantages - specific, easy, comparison easy, objective, standard, rely on self-report. disadvantage: people can lie easily, non-comprehensive, not individualized, limited infomriaton, no non-verbal information
Behavioural assessment
Observe the patient in a particular setting. advantages: targets behavior, direct observation, standard, objective, individualized. Disadvantages: may cause bahavior to change, time consuming, expensive
Biological assessment
Neuroimaging (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET), neuropsychology (look for defecits when doing certain activities), neurophysiological (look at bodily changes)
Clinical Assessment
Structured/semistructured/unstructured interviews
Mental Staus Exam
Behaviour/Appearance, thought process, intellectual functioning, sensorium, mood/affect
Internal/external validity
Internal - confident that independent variable measures what its suppose to. external - how well your results relate to things outside your study
Research designs
Experiements, case studies, correlational study, longitudinal (observe group), epidemiological (prevalance, incident, risk facotrs), qualitative
Anxiety
Less intense, longer lasting then panic, more about the future, prolonged state of apprehension/worry/fear/mood state
Fear
Here and now, more acute emotional alarm/reaction
Specific phobias
Fear/anxiety about something specific. irrational and avoid what your scared of. phobia is when a fear causes distress or disturbs your everyday life. treatment: exposure therapy (VR reality)
Different categories of phobias
Animal, environmental, situational, blood-injection-injury, other
Social anxiety disorder
Intense fear of social situations where you may be judged. onset is 15 y/o and duration about 20 years. treatment: cognitive group therapy
Panic disorder
Recurring, intense, unexpected panic attacks. symptoms: sweating, raised heart beat, shortness of breath, fain, fear of dying/going crazy, temperature changes. onset is late 20's
Agoraphobia
Fear of situations where you cannot escape or get help
General anxiety disorder
Uncontollable/excessive worry about everything/little everyday things. symptoms: trouble sleeping/concentrating, irritable, muscle tension
Psychological influence of mental illness
Childhood experiences, stress/trauma, personality, learned helplessness (depression), hopelessness (depression)
Biological influences on mental illness
Genes, vulnerability, neurotransmitters, behavioral inhibition system (anxiety), fight or flight mode (anxiety)
Anxiety treatments
- drug therapy (bezodiazepines - short term relief, addictive, side-effects or SSRIs - more long term, several weeks), CBT (exposure therapy), Cognitive techniques (thought records, cognitive distorition, cognitive restructuring, problem solving)
MDD
At least 2 weeks with 5 or more symptoms. symptoms: depressed mood, loss in interest of pleasureable things, difficulty sleeping, lethargic, agitated, change in weight/appetite, loss of energy, fatigue, negative self- oncept, guily, worhtless, suicide thoughts
PDD
Frequent depressed feeligns for 2 or more years with 2 or more symptoms. symptoms: despressed mood, appetite chagnes, low energy, fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration
Premenstrually dysphoric disorder
At least 1 (irritable, angry, depressed, anxious), at least 1 (decreased interest, trouble concentrating, appetite change, lethargy, sleep issues, ovewhelmed, phsyical symptoms)
Bipolar I disorder
At least 1 Manic episode, often at least 1 MDD episode
Bipolar II disorder
1 hypomanic episode, 1 MD episode usually, never been manic
Cyclothymic disorder
Cycles of sub-par hypothymic/depressive episodes. rapid cycles (4x per year)
Specifiers of depression
Psychotic features (hallucination/delusion), anxious, mixed features, melancholic features, catatonic features, atypical, peripatum onset, seasonal
Mania
Lasts 1 week, extreme mood elevation, symptoms (3+): inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, more talkative, racing thoughts, irritability, violence is common
Hypermania
Lasts around 4 days, less extreme then mania
Treatment for depression
- electroconculsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, cbt, drugs, interpersonal therapy
Treatments for bipolar
CBT, medication, psychoeducation, cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy