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respiration


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breathing
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what does pulmonary venilation mean

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respiration - Details

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123 questions
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Breathing
What does pulmonary venilation mean
O2 and CO2 exchange between lungs and blood
What does external respiration mean
Conducting zone, respiratory zone, respiratory muscles
What are the anatomical structures of the respiratory system organized to
Site of gas exchange
Respiratory zone
Diaphragm and other muscles
Respiratory muscles
Three on the right; Two on the left
Contrast the right and the left secondary bronchi:
Right
Which primary bronchi is shorter?
Brochioles
Which respiratory conduit contains no cartilage: the trachea, the bronchi, the bronchioles?
Nasal cavity - Nasopharynx : tissue: Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Give the changes in respiratory mucosa along the respiratory tract:
Simple squamous epithelial tissue
Exchange surface of lungs: tissue
Conduction of air
Function of the upper respiratory tract?
Elastic cartilage
Epiglottis cartilage
Hyaline
Cuneiform cartilage
• Site for gas exchange
Describe the respiratory exchange surface
Fluid buildup in lung
Pleura effusion
Diaphragm & External intercostals
List the muscles of quiet inspiration
Diaphragm & External intercostals
List the muscles involved in quiet exhalation (muscles that relaxed)
Scalene, Pectoralis major, Sternocleidomastoid
List the muscles that are contracted during forced inspiration
Abdominal muscles & Internal intercostals
List the muscles that are contracted during forced exhalation
Breaths per minute
Respiratory rate
Insufficient amount of surfacant
What causes Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in premature babies.
It helps open up breathing passages
Explain why epinephrine is used during an asthma attack
Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Give two examples of COPD.
1.5% of oxygen dissolved in plasma
What % of oxygen is carried dissolved in the plasma
98.5% carried by hemoglobin.
What % is carried by hemoglobin
Hemoglobin combined with Oxygen
What is oxyhemoglobin
Release
- Under acidic conditions hemoglobin will (release/retain) -------------- O2
Release
- An increase of CO2 in tissues can be due to high tissue activity, this increase will cause hemoglobin to (release/retain) -------------- O2
Increase
- The Bohr effect: Acidic conditions (increase/decrease) --------- H+ levels.
Release
In the presence of acidic conditions, Hemoglobin will (release/retain) -------------- O2 and capture H+ ions
Release
- Metabolic reactions give off heat, active cells give off heat, active cells require more O2. Therefore, the heat from metabolism causes hemoglobin to (release/retain) -------------- O2.
7-10%
Percentage of CO2 dissolved in plasma
20%
Percentage of CO2 forms carbaminohemoglobin
70%
Percentage of CO2 transported in plasma as bicarbonate ions
CO2 + H2O  H2 CO3  H+ + HCO3-
This reaction occurs inside the RBC’s
Increased
Notice that an increase in CO2 will cause an increase in H+ ions (acidic conditions). Active tissue has an (increased/decreased) ---------------- levels of CO2.
Increase
The CO2 will (increase/decrease) ------------- the Bohr effect.
Medulla and pons
Respiratory Centers are located in
Peripheral chemoreceptor
Are located in the carotid artery and the aortic sinuses.
Increase
Increased levels of CO2 , hypercapnea, (above 40 mmHg)  stimulation of respiratory centers  -------------- (increase/decrease) respiratory rate
Decrease
Decreased levels of CO2 , hypocapnea, (below 40 mmHg)  no stimulation of respiratory centers  -------------- (increase/decrease) respiratory rate.
Yes, no
Increased of heart rate for sympathetic and parasympathetic
Yes, no
Increase respiratory rate for sympathetic and parasympathetic
No, yes
Decrease of respiratory rate for sympathetic and parasympathetic
Yes no
Bronchiodilation for sympathetic and parasympathetic
No,no
Bronchioconstriction for sympathetic and parasympathetic
• Increase in temperature, H+, P Co2 and BPG
Conditions that cause Hemoglobin to release Oxygen:
Internal respiration
.- Exchange of gases between tissue and capillaries is called
Ventilation
.- Inhalation and exhalation is called
Type 2
.- Alveolar cells that secrete surfactant are
Bronchioles
.- Which conduit would have no cartilage, only smooth muscle?
Larynx, trachea, terminal brochiole, oropharynx
Which of the following organs are part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system?
.- ethmoid frontal maxillary sphenoid
Which of these bones do contain sinuses