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Happens where there is a difference in concentration; can also result to net movement of particles

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73 questions
Happens where there is a difference in concentration; can also result to net movement of particles
Square of the distance
The time it takes to diffuse from one place to another is proportional to the
Circulatory system
Alternative adaptation for efficient exchange of animals that lack a simple body plan
Gastrovascular Cavity
Functions in the distribution of substances throughout the body as well as in digestion for animals such as hydra, jellies, and other cnidarians
Circulatory fluid, interconnecting vessels, and muscular pump (heart)
Three basic components of a circulatory system
Open or closed
Circulatory systems are either
Interstitial fluid in a closed circulatory system that bathes body cells
Circulatory fluid in closed circulatory system that is confined to vessels and is distinct from interstitial fluid
Uses less energy
Open circulatory system benefits
Effective delivery of oxygen and nutrients
Closed circulatory system benefits
Cardiovasular system
Term used to describe the heart and blood vessels in vertebrates
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries
Three main types of blood vessels
Convey blood to capillaries
Microscopic vessels with very thin, porous walls
Capillary beds
Network of capillaries
Arteries carry blood _____ the heart
Veins carry blood ______ the heart
The chamber that receives blood entering the heart
Chamber/s responsible for pumping blood
Single Circulation
Blood travels through the body and returns to its starting point in a single circuit or loop
Double Circulation
Have two circuits of blood flow
Pulmonary Circuit
Gas exchange takes place in the lungs
Pulmocutaneous Circuit
Gas exchange takes place in capillaries in both the lungs and skin
Systemic Circuit
Begins with the left side of the heart pumping oxygen-enriched blood from the gas exchange tissues to capillary beds in organs and tissues throughout the body
Oxygen-poor blood
The right side of the heart receives
Oxygen-rich blood
The left side of the heart receives
Cardiac Muscle
The human heart consists mostly of
It pumps blood
When the heart contracts
Cardiac Cycle
One complete sequence of pumping and filling
Contraction phase of the cycle
Relaxation phase of the cycle
Cardiac Output
Volume of blood each ventricle pumps per minute
Heart rate
Rate of contraction of the heart; number of beats per minute
Stroke Volume
Amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in a single contraction
Prevent backflow and keep blood moving in the correct direction
Atrioventricular Valve
Lies between each atrium and ventricle ; anchored by strong fibers that prevent them from turning inside out during ventricular systole
Semilunar Valve
Located at the two exits of the heart where the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle and where the aorta leaves the left ventricle
AV valve
Lub sound is created by the
SL valve
Dub sound is created by the
Heart murmur
Abnormal sound produced when blood squirts through a defective valve
Sinoatrial Node (pacemaker)
Sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract via the production of electrical impulse much like those produced by nerve cells
Electrocardiodiagram (ECG/EKG)
Measures the electrical activity of the heart
Atrioventricular node
Relay point where impulses are delayed by 0.1 second before spreading to the heart apex
Bundle branches and Purkinje Fibers
Specialized structures that relay the electrical signals from the heart apex
Speeds up
Sympathetic division in the body trigger physiological cues that ____ the heart tempo
Slows down
Parasympathetic division in the body trigger physiological cues that ______ the heart tempo
Body temperature
Type of input that also affects the pacemaker; evident when you have a fever
Single layer of flattened epithelial cells
Smallest blood vessels
Basal Lamina
Capillaries consists of a surrounding extra layer called
How many layers does arteries and veins have in their walls
Connective Tissues
The outer layer of arteries and veins is formed by
Smooth Muscle
Layer next to endothelium of arteries and veins
Veins contain _____ that prevent backflow
Slow down; larger
Blood pressure in capillaries ______ due to ____ cross sectional area compared to veins and arteries
Ventricular systole
Arterial blood pressure is highest when the heart contracts during
Systolic pressure
Pressure during pumping of blood
Rhythmic bulging of the artery walls with each heartbeat
Diastolic Pressure
Pressure when ventricles are relaxed
Process when the smooth muscles in arteriole walls contract and the arterioles narrow
A process that tends to increase the diameter that causes blood pressure in the arteries to fall
Nitric Oxide
Gas as an inducer of vasodilation
Peptide that is the most potent inducer of vasoconstriction
Rings of smooth muscle at the entrance to capillary beds
Dissolved proteins
Responsible for much of the blood's osmotic pressure
Lymphatic System
System that recovers and returns the lost fluid and proteins
Recovered fluid; circulates within the lymphatic system before draining into a pair of large veins of the cardiovascular system at the base of the neck
Lymph Vessels
Like veins, have valves that prevent the backflow of fluid
Fluid Accumulation in affected tissues
Condition marked by extreme swelling in limbs or other parts of the body
Lymph Nodes
Small lymph filtering organs; play an important role in the body's defense