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Science


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Rena Kerm


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[Front]


Connective and epithelial tissue working together
[Back]


Membrane

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Cutaneous membrane
Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium on a thick layer of connective tissue/dermis
Where is a mucus membrane located?
Digestive ,mouth, urinary, reproductive, respiratory
Lamina propria
Attaches epithelium layer to layer or whatever’s underneath (ex: muscle)
Functions of lamina propria
Attached epithelium to underlying layer
Serous membrane lines:
Peritoneal (digestive), Pericardial (heart), Pleural (lungs)
Parietal
Farther from organ
Tissue repairs:
Mostly skin
What is needed for tissue repair?(3)
Cells that can divide, A signal to know to divide, Structural framework to rebuild the tissue on
Why do we need cells that can divide?
To copy/ produce more cells to replace the damaged ones
What two things is the type of repair based on?
Blood supply in injured area, Nutritional levels/ nutrient state of the individual who’s hurt
Types of tissue repair:
Regeneration, Fibrosis
Signal from damaged cells
Inflammatory chemicals
Three things attack pathogens at injured site and form a clot:
White blood cells, Clotting proteins, Fluids
Function of fibers/ fibrous tissue in organization?
The fibers provide framework for the repairs, Hold the cut together
Third stage of tissue repair:
Regeneration or Fibrosis
Nuclei in skeletal muscles
Many: peripheral (cell’s edges)
Striated muscles
Skeletal, Cardiac
Ability to contract
Contractility
Extensibility
Ability to stretch farther
Functions of muscles:
Produce movement
Muscles maintaining posture vs bones
Bones are framework/structure, but muscles keep you upright and fight gravity
Plasma membranes of muscle cells have:
Resting membrane potential
Let certain things in or out
Selectively permeable
Second step of action potential
Sodium (Na+) rushes into cell through Na+ channels (because of concentration gradient), so the charge in the membrane becomes more and more positive
Third step of action potential
The second step happens until cell reaches the charge needed for an electrical impulse
Fourth step of action potential
Once the threshold is reached, potassium stops coming: potassium(K+) leaves the cell through K+ channels. As it leaves, the charge of the cell returns to regular (resting membrane potential)
Fifth step of action potential
Sodium goes back out of cell/potassium comes back in , through the Na+/K+ Pump (which is constantly active)
What is the smallest level/unit?
Myofilaments (found as Actin/myosin)
Two types
Loose connective tissue proper