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Pharmacology- Types of drugs and how they work

This is good for reviewing drugs used to treat conditions for different body systems, generic, trade name,etc.

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True or false: acetaminophen treats both pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis.

False. Acetaminophen does not treat inflammation.

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433 questions
True or false: there are no long-term side effects from taking salicylate drugs.
False. They cause stomach irritation and gastric ulcers long-term.
Types of salicylate drugs
Aspirin (Bayer, Ecotrin), magnesium salicylate (Doan's)
How is Ecotrin administered?
It is an enteric-coated tablet that is administered rectally.
NSAIDs treat pain and inflammation by:
Inhibiting production of prostaglandins
Diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren), fenoprofen (Nalfon), indomethacin (Indocin), keptoprofen, meloxicam (Mobic), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), oxaprozin (Daypro), piroxicam (Feldene), sulindac (Clinoril)
Indocin (indomethacin) is used to treat osteoarthritis and ..:
It is given intravenously to newborns to close persistent patent ductus arteriosus.
2 NSAIDs used only to treat animals include:
Carpofen (Rimadyl) for cats and dogs; and phenylbutazone (Butazolidin) for horses.
COX-2 (cyclooxygenase) is a(n):
Enzyme that plays a role in production of prostaglandins.
COX-2 inhibitor drugs work by:
Selectively inhibiting COX-2, which decreases production of prostaglandins.
True or false: corticosteroid drugs used to treat osteoarthritis are analgesics.
False, they are anti-inflammatory, used to treat acute flare-ups of inflammation of joints.
Corticosteroids that can be directly injected into a joint
Betamethasone, dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone)
Cortef and Solu-Cortef
Medrol and Solu-Medrol
Aristospan Intra-articular and Kenalog-10
Limbrel (flavocoxid) is categorized as a:
Medical food product (it contains plant antioxidants)
Lipoxygenase (LOX) is a(n):
Enzyme that converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandins.
Prostaglandins also do this:
Protect the stomach mucous membranes.
Osteo-Bi_Flex contains:
Glucosamine and chondroitin
Helps the body produce cartilage
Helps cartilage retain water content
Types of drugs used to treat osteoarthritis:
Acetaminophen, salicylate drugs, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, and corticosteroids.
Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by:
Autoimmune response where the immune system destroys cartilage, connective tissue, and joints.
The first drugs used to treat RA are:
Acetaminophen, salicylate drugs, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, and corticosteroids.
Drugs used to treat RA that are more intensive include:
Gold compound drugs, monoclonal antibody drugs, Janus kinase inhibitor drugs, and immunosuppressant drugs
Gold compound drugs treat RA by:
Inhibiting macrophages in the immune system from attacking joints.
Monoclonal antibody drugs treat RA by:
Preventing lymphocytes from making antibodies against joint tissues, and by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor.
3 substances that can cause inflammation are:
Prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor, and cytokines
Janus kinase is a(n)
Enzyme within cells that triggers cytokines (which are released by WBCs during an autoimmune response.)
Azathioprine and cyclosporine treat RA by
Suppressing the immune response
Abatacept treats RA by:
Inhibiting T lymphocytes that attack joint tissues
Anakinra treats RA by:
Blocking interleukin-1 from binding to receptors on cartilage cells and destroying cartilage.
Etanercept treats RA by:
Blocking tumor necrosis factor and by suppressing the immune response.
Hydroxychloroquine treats RA by:
It is unknown how hydroxychloroquine works to treat RA.
Leflunomide treats RA by:
Controlling an overactive immune response
Methotrexate is used to treat both RA and:
Cancer (it is a chemotherapy drug)
Topical drugs used to treat pain of osteoarthritis include:
Aspercreme, Capsin, Icy Hot, Bengay, Musterole Deep Strength Rub, Therapeutic Mineral Ice
What does Aspercreme contain?
Trolamine salicylate
Monoclonal antibody drugs used to treat RA include:
Humira, Cimzia, Simponi, Remicade, Rituxan, and Actemra
What type of drug is Xeljanz (used to treat RA)?
It's a Janus Kinase inhibitor drug
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Causes follicle to rupture and release mature ovum
Monophasic oral contraceptive drugs
Have 1 phase: fixed dose of a progestins drug and fixed dose of an estrogen drug in one tablet.
Phase 1 of biphasic oral contraceptives:
Fixed doses of both progestins and estrogen drugs.
In phases 2 and 3 of triphasic contraceptives, the levels of progestin and estrogen:
Vary, going up or down or staying the same from one phase to the next.
Four-phasic oral contraceptives:
Have phases that vary in length of time and in the dosage of different drugs contained in the drugs.
NuvaRing and Ortho Evra are hormone contraceptives with
Fixed daily doses of a progestins drug and an estrogen drug, not given orally.
Progestins-only contraceptives
Are slightly less effective, but they decrease the risk of blood clots.
Serious adverse effects of oral contraceptives include:
Blood clots, stroke, and heart attack
2 biphasic oral contraceptive drugs.
LoSeasonique and Seasonique
Triphasic drug Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 reflects:
The number of days in each phase
Ovulation-stimulating drugs are appropriate for patients with
Anovulation, polycystic ovary syndrome, hormonal imbalance
Ovulation-stimulating drugs are not appropriate for patients with infertility due to
Blocked uterine tubes, or problems that require surgical intervention.
Some ovulation-stimulating drugs work by
Inhibiting secretion of FSH and LH to prevent premature surging of hormones during ovulation